B.K. Nelson, X. Cai, A. Nebenführ (2007)
A multi-color set of in vivo organelle markers for colocalization studies in Arabidopsis and other plants
Plant Journal 51:1126-1136.


Genome sequencing has resulted in the identification of a large number of uncharacterized genes of unknown functions. It is widely recognized that determination of the intracellular localization of the encoded proteins may aid in identifying their functions. To facilitate these localization experiments, we have generated a series of fluorescent organelle markers based on well-established targeting sequences that can be used for colocalization studies. In particular, this organelle marker set contains indicators for the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the tonoplast, peroxisomes, mitochondria, plastids, and the plasma membrane. All markers were generated with four different fluorescent proteins (green, cyan, yellow, or red fluorescent proteins) in two different binary plasmids for kanamycin or glufosinate selection, respectively, to allow for flexible combinations. The labeled organelles displayed characteristic morphologies consistent with previous descriptions that could be used for their positive identification. Determination of the intracellular distribution of three previously uncharacterized proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the markers in testing predicted subcellular localizations. This organelle marker set should be a valuable resource for the plant community for such colocalization studies. In addition, the Arabidopsis organelle marker lines can also be employed in plant cell biology teaching labs to demonstrate the distribution and dynamics of these organelles.

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More information on the organelle markers can be found on The Marker Page.

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